By John W. Humphrey
Since precedent days, technological advances have elevated man's probabilities for survival. From the practicality of a Roman aqueduct to the paintings of the written notice, guy has consistently tailored his atmosphere to fulfill his wishes, and to supply himself with sustenance, convenience, convenience, rest, the next caliber of residing, and a thriving tradition. This concise reference resource takes a more in-depth examine six technological occasions that considerably impacted the evolution of civilization, from the Palaeolithic age to the peak of the Roman Empire. As he touches at the universal parts of historical technology―energy, machines, mining, metallurgy, ceramics, agriculture, engineering, transportation, and communication―Humphrey asks questions vital to realizing the influence of historic instruments at the sleek global: What activates swap? What cultural traditions inhibit swap? What impact do those alterations have on their societies and civilization?
Humphrey explores applied sciences as either actual instruments and as extensions of the human physique, starting with the discovery of the Greek alphabet and together with such accomplishments as early Neolithic plant cultivation, the discovery of coinage, the construction of the Parthenon, and Rome's city water approach. special line drawings of instruments and machines make historic mechanics extra simply available. basic records, thesaurus, biographies, and a timeline relationship from the Palaeolithic age to the Roman Empire around out the paintings, making this a terrific reference resource for knowing the instruments of the traditional world.
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Extra resources for Ancient Technology (Greenwood Guides to Historic Events of the Ancient World)
The largely Islamic Middle East of today, for example, shows techniques and attitudes toward technology that can be very different from those of the farmers of antiquity. Still, ancient literary descriptions of long-lost tools or processes can often be confirmed and even modified by the study of modern artifacts and techniques. Documentary Sources Written records are available from Bronze-Age Mesopotamia onward, but it is not until the classical period of Greece and Rome that the works Historical and Technological Overview are valuable for a study of the technologies of the ancients.
E. understandably bears the title of the Golden Age of Greece, and particularly of Athens. Their successful opposition to two dangerous invasions of their peninsula by the Persians had temporarily unified many of the hitherto fiercely independent Greek city-states and in part stimulated the great cultural achievements of that century. E. a plentiful supply of silver-bearing ore was discovered at Laurion in Attica, and the wealth from its exploitation was the foundation of Athenian prosperity and dominance.
But it was left to the Macedonians, more militaristic Greeks (and, some Athenians said, less cultured ones) from the northern part of the peninsula, to bring about the first political unification of the independent Greek poleis, under Philip II and his son, Alexander the Great. With his remarkable conquests and foundation of cities in lands previously tribal (many of which were named after him, including Afghan Kandahar), the young Alexander spread Greek culture throughout the eastern Mediterranean and as far eastward as the Indus River: and the benefits were reciprocal, as contact with new cultures as far away as India brought innovations and improvements to the technological level of the classical world.