By Frank R. Ettensohn, Nicholas Rast, Carlton Elliot Brett
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Extra resources for Ancient Seismites (GSA Special Paper 359)
Three fractures in the northern end of the trench (Fig. 5B) that cut across the fine-grained, laminated sand marker bed 2 (below F2 in Fig. 4) are filled with coarser grained, massive sand. Two of these widen upward and merge upward with overlying coarser grained sand lenses that contain material identical to that of the fracture fillings. Although the fractures themselves may have originated as joints, the clastic fillings are interpreted as having settled by gravity from the top rather than as injected clastic dikes.
This normal fault and minor, nearby normal faults have offset the basal fluvial-lacustrine sequence by at least 5 m (Table 3). The secondary fault is located about 5 m north of, and parallel to, the main fault (Fig. 4). 1 m (Table 3). Sand, injected along both major faults, precluded measuring slip vectors directly on either fault surface. However, slickensides were measured on small fault sur- Late Quaternary paleoseismites 39 Figure 5. Features observed in trench (Fig. 4) across main Lima Reservoir fault.
To define stratigraphic criteria for discriminating between (1) fast earthquake-related slip and (2) slow quasi-continuous creep, we carried out several exploratory trenches along the eastern flank of Mt. Etna, where capable faults (active faults producing displacement at or near the surface) show both modes of movements with high slip rates and short recurrence intervals. Our sites have experienced predominant coseismic (Fondo Macchia) and aseismic (Mandra del Re) fault slip during historical times.