Analysis of ordinal data by David K. Hildebrand, James D. Laing, Howard Rosenthal

By David K. Hildebrand, James D. Laing, Howard Rosenthal

Ordinal info should be rank ordered yet now not assumed to have equivalent distances among different types. utilizing aid via judges for civil rights measures and bussing because the fundamental instance, this paper shows how such info can top be analyzed.

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Extra resources for Analysis of ordinal data

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The proponents of the condensed form (Table 3) may still respond that predictions such as and (Tables 1 and 2) are not really ordinal but nominal. After all, even with simple nominal categories one could state predictions that would lead to patterns of shaded error cells as in the first two tables. In contrast, since the relations more and less are meaningless to simple categorization (Caucasian is neither more nor less than Native American), the condensed ordinal form requires at least ordinal measurement.

Put differently, observing not free when very free is predicted constitutes the same degree of error as observing very free when not free is predicted. ) Consequently, w31 = w13. Also by symmetry, w21 = w12 and w32 = w23. ) In the 3×3 example, therefore, we have only three unique non-zero weights: w31, w21, and w32. Page 31 What does the ordinal character of the variables tell us about their relative values? We can justify some relations among the error weights. Clearly, for any observations predicted to be very free, the outcome not free is at least as bad an error as is free, so w31³w21.

Luke may be able to tell Sue with confidence that the bath water feels hot, warm, cool, or cold, but be unable to judge the water temperature accurately in degrees Celsius. ) Similarly, in coding interview data, researchers might believe that their judgmental capacities are only fine enough to justify using a small number of ordered categories. Again the Aberbach and Rockman study is representative: they used five ordered categories of support for social services (left, left-center, center, right-center, and right).

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