Advances in Understanding Mechanisms and Treatment of by R. John Leigh, Michael W. Devereaux

By R. John Leigh, Michael W. Devereaux

This quantity brings jointly paintings from best researchers within the fields of developmental problems of binocular imaginative and prescient, strabismus, and either childish and purchased kinds of nystagmus. It includes 4 sections. the 1st part, easy strategies of sturdy imaginative and prescient and Gaze, offers with psychophysical facets of childish sorts of nystagmus and the relative contributions of extraocular proprioception and efference (corollary discharge). It additionally comprises an available evaluation of present notions of spatial and temporal visible features and spatial fidelity in childish nystagmus syndrome and latent nystagmus. the second one part, New versions and methods for learning Gaze balance, stories animal and improvement versions for strabismus, amblyopia, and nystagmus. It additionally includes novel optical tools for handling the visible outcomes of nystagmus and a research of the capability ailing results of video monitors on kid's reaction to close viewing. The 3rd part, New remedies for Congenital Nystagmus, offers easy genetic reports and medical trials of drug and surgery of these sufferers with childish varieties of nystagmus. the ultimate section,General features of ordinary and irregular Gaze keep watch over, pulls jointly a number contributions facing common gaze keep an eye on, childish nystagmus, and purchased issues of eye activities, together with new remedy measures. This ebook can be a beneficial source for all scientists and practitioners attracted to developmental problems of imaginative and prescient.

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Moreover, during locomotion the vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic systems act in unison to reduce retinal-image slip. Thus gaze-holding has both visual (smooth pursuit and optokinetic) and motor (vestibular) inputs that are underpinned by neuronal processes (fixation cells in the superior colliculus, pause cells in the brainstem, and the neural integrators in the brainstem and cerebellum). 7-10 In addition, a further class of larger-amplitude involuntary physiological eye movements known as saccadic intrusions are also present.

The visual consequences of such fixation failures depend on the onset time of the visual loss, the nature of any attendant afferent defect, and the retinal-image dynamics. This chapter describes psychophysical studies that examine the spatial (contrast sensitivity, visual acuity, vernier acuity, and stereopsis) and temporal (absolute and relative detection and discrimination motion thresholds) visual performance of individuals with idiopathic and nonidiopathic congenital nystagmus. Experiments that investigate the strongly visually driven behavior of manifest latent nystagmus and issues relating to spatial Visual perception is strongly dependent on the optical quality of the retinal image and its subsequent neuronal processing, and is also intimately linked to fixation control.

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