A Colour Atlas of Optic Disc Abnormalities by Erna E. Kritzinger

By Erna E. Kritzinger

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Arnheim also got similar results questioning his students after I raised the subject in the 1970s. Often, in our perceptual reality, three-dimensional understanding, resulting from the related gain in simplicity, is unified with the three-dimensionality resulting from the movement deforming the simple form, and which we can discern in it. Particularly simple examples of this are Doric columns or cylinders unevenly curved at top or bottom. ~ I seethe figure as a sphere (1t) 1~/1CIc I see the figure as more flat ( I cannot decide ( Participants 48 I '1Q ) 11- I~Ck 6) ), ~J

Following this, I asked them to draw a palm-tree, again with a vertical section through it. The drawing should again show how and in which direction the leaves grow out of the trunk. Again we asked the students not to use graphic shading or effects and to draw only one tree. This time the students were a little quicker, about ten minutes. Let us start with the fir-tree: 161 students, almost 97%, drew all the branches from top to bottom parallel to each other, evenly spaced, growing out of the trunk at the same angle.

In figure B these spheres, drawn as circles, became uniformly smaller from the centre to the circumference; so, gradually, did the spaces between the spheres. 95% of the test persons saw this figure as "three-dimensional". Presumably they saw a large sphere made of evenly spaced smaller uniform spheres. This interpretation would seem to be based on gestalt psychology's law of the simple form. In this way - that the whole figure was seen as a sphere and not, like its predecessor, as a circle - so much simplicity could be gained by means of the uniformity of the spheres and the spaces between them, that in this case our perception obviously prefers to see three-dimensionality rather than flatness - completely in accordance with the gestalt psychologists.

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