3-D Seismic Interpretation by Bacon M., Simm R., Redshaw T.

By Bacon M., Simm R., Redshaw T.

This e-book introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of examining 3D seismic information. the subjects it covers contain easy structural interpretation and map-making; using 3D visualization equipment; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the iteration and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written via specialist geophysicists with decades of operating adventure within the oil undefined, the ebook might be essential for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum

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To reduce the possibility of aliasing, additional shots are created by interpolation between the actual shots. Generally, frequency-space methods are employed since these use the lower unaliased frequencies to generate estimates of the higher frequencies. The procedure is explained by the stacking diagram in fig. 25. The shot recorded data are sorted into receiver gathers; each receiver gather is then interpolated to add one new trace between each existing trace. These traces are then used together with the original data to form better-sampled CMPs.

That was created by the source and converts it to a more compact form. For instance, air guns output a signal with a main peak, followed by a smaller secondary peak due to the re-expansion of the air bubble. Such a source signal is undesirable since every reflection would be followed by a smaller repetition of itself. Designature removes the second peak, giving the input wavelet a more compact form. A decision needs to be made at this point whether the output should be zero- or minimum-phase. A zero-phase wavelet is one that is symmetrical about its centre, while a minimum-phase wavelet is one that starts at time zero and has as much energy near the start as physically possible (fig.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 5 to 25 m groups. 5 km grid) NMO Processing hereafter continuing on three volumes: 21. Stack to generate three volumes: near offset stack, far offset stack and full offset stack 22. 3-D constant velocity inverse time migration 23. Bulk static (gun and cable correction) 24. K-notch filter to remove pattern caused by the acquisition 25. FXY deconvolution 26. 5 m bin grid 27. g. ) 28. One pass steep dip 3-D time migration (using time and spatially varying velocity field) 29.

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