By Neal H. Atebara, MD
Discusses present purposes of optical phenomena, together with the optical foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs and refractive surgical procedure. provides optics of the human eye; uncomplicated techniques of geometric optics; ophthalmic tools and get in touch with lenses. Discusses imaginative and prescient rehabilitation from the epidemiology of imaginative and prescient impairment, category of visible functionality deficits, sufferer evaluate and occasional imaginative and prescient administration. final significant revision 2009 2010.
Read or Download 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course) PDF
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Extra info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
Redrawn by C. H. ) • 18 • Clinical Optics Brightness is a subjective te rm referring to the sensation produced by a given illuminance on the retina. ) The commonly used radiometric and photometric terms are summarized in Tables 1-1 and 1-2. Michaels DD. Visual Optics and Refraction: A Clinical Approach. St Louis: Mosby; 1985:1 4- 16. Tab le , -, Principal Types of Photometric Light Measurement *~ ~ ~ ==8 Desc ription Tvpe Units Quan tity of light leaving a source or Lum ino us flux Lumens (1 candle emits 41'( 1m) Light emitted per unit solid ang le Lum inous intensity (candle power) 1 candela* = 1 Im/sr Quantity of light per uni t area incident Il luminance 1 lux = 1 lume n/square meter 1 foot-candle = 1 lumen/ square ft light reflected or em itted by a surface, per unit area and per unit solid angle Luminance 1 apostilb = ( l /n) lumen/ square meter/sr 1 foot-lambert = (1/n) lumen/ square ft / sr Illuminance at the retina, adjust ed for pupi l size Retinal illuminance Tro lands (luminance of 1 candle/ square met er viewed through 1-square-mm pupil) passing through a region of space on a surface or at an image *A standard (new) candle is called a candela.
16 • Clinical Optics image is negligible. This limit is given by the Rayleigh criterion: If the wavefront produced by the optical system is within one-quarter wavelength of being perfect, fu rther improvement will not result in significantly better resolution. This tolerance has a practical appli cation in setting standards for the fabrication of optical components. Scattering Scattering of light occurs at irregularities in the light path, such as particles or inclusions in an otherwise homogeneous medium.
Thall, MD, and Kevin M. Miller. MO, and rendered by C H. ) Optical Interfaces The boundary between 2 different optical media is called an optical interface. Typically, whe n light reaches an optical interface, some light is transmi tted through the interface, some is reflected, and some is absorbed or converted to heat by the interface. The amount of light transmitted, reflected, and absorbed depends on several factors. When light reaches smooth optical interfaces, it undergoes specular reflection and transmission (Fig 2- 17); at rough optical interfaces, light undergoes diffuse reflection and transmission (Fig 2-18).