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Additional resources for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 9: Intraocular Inflammation and Uveitis (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
The mechanism is unclear but is probably similar to ACAID. This observation may be important because of growing interest in retinal transplantation and gene therapy. ) The capacity of the choriocapillaris and choroid to function as unique environments for the afferent or effector phases has not yet been evaluated. Immunoregulatory Stein-Streilein j, Streilein jw. Anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID): regulation, biological relevance, and implications for therapy. Int Rev Immunol.
CD4 T lymphocytes become activated into T helper 1 (Th1) or T helper 2 (Th2)subsets. Th1 lymphocytes function to help B lymphocytes secrete immunoglobulin G1 (lgG1) and IgG3; inhibit Th2; and release cytokines such as interleukin-2 (lL-2). interferon-y (IFN-y), tumor necrosis factor fJ (TNF-fJ),and interleukin-12 (IL-12). Th2 lymphocytes function to help B lymphocytes secrete IgE and IgA; inhibit Thl lymphocytes; and synthesize cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-l O. CDS T lymphocytes become activated into regulatory T lymphocytes that function by inhibiting other CD4 T lymphocytes, often by secreting cytokines such as TNF-fJ.
However, if most of the antigen is already cleared, then the primed T lymphocyte may enter the skin but become inactive, retaining memory. Or the T lymphocyte may exit the skin through afferent lymphatics to reenter the lymph node. Similarly, antibodies or antibody-producing B lymphocytes may remain in the skin or reach the lymph nodes. Secondary response to poison ivy toxin The immunologic mechanisms work much faster after the second encounter with poison ivy toxin. The afferent phase of this secondary response begins when the toxin permeates the epidermis.